Creation of the universe is the topic of research since long time. Many varied and unique theories were proposed to explain the concept of creation of universe . Where as the big bang theory was became more popular among scientists and enthusiasts. The theory says that the Universe was born out of a highly compressed, dense and microscopic point (called singularity) which exploded around 13.8 billion years ago. This big bang cause all the matter to move outwards in all directions.
We all know that big bang theory is not 100% right, but we do not even know if it is 100% wrong either! There have been different scientists who have other theories which tend to disapprove or question the big bang theory.
The Big Bang theory was based on observation of the ‘red shift’ in the light spectrum. Stars seem to absorb specific wavelengths of light .
these wavelengths are directly proportional to the distance between observer and the object being observed. These specific wavelengths of light are called as Fraunhofer lines. Due to Doppler effect the farther the galaxy is moving from viewer the more the wavelength will be.
Considering all these effects into account, gaps are observed in red portion of the EM spectrum, this phenomena is called red shift.
The light wavelength emitted from an astronomical object that is moving away from us exhibits a shift in the light spectrum towards the red end. The Big Bang theory is supported by the understanding that the shift of light towards the red band in the spectrum is continuous and uniform in nature an indication of all matter moving outwards steadily, but at great speed.
Working the outward movement backwards, it would mean that it all began from a single starting point in the centre of the Universe (singularity), which is how the Big Bang theory was popularized among astrophysicists. However the researchers have found that the red shift does not occur in a uniform manner, but in recurring stages, what they refer to as periodicity in red shift. The red shift in astronomical observation is attributed to the expanding model of the universe.
As the change in wavelength is happening due to the expansion of the universe, the red shifts are supposed to be continuous and uniform in nature. However, on the contrary, the analysis of the data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)DR12 showed the existence of periodicity of red shifts of galaxy and quasar.
The Indian astrophysicists used a technique called singular value decomposition method, as against the standard spectral estimation approach that was used in discovering the uniform red shift that supports Big Bang theory. The superiority of the singular value decomposition method in analyzing red shift periodicity, especially from the point of view of robustness, is demonstrated through the simulations. They took very large data samples and used a statistical method. The latest findings by the astrophysicists is also found to be compatible with the Fred Hoyle-Jayant Narlikar variable mass theory which hypothesized that quasars are born in and ejected from the nuclei of parent galaxies as massless objects and the particle masses in them systematically increase with epoch.
After seeing all this findings, the question arises that why the galaxies not tend to to move towards each other due to gravitational forces. We have a great example of andromeda galaxy which is proved to be moving slightly towards our galaxy day by day. But when we recall dark energy and working of dark energy along with quantum fluctuations, dark energy seems to be playing a big part in this whole scenario, and unfortunately researchers are not very clear about concept of dark energy and the theories are still in question like the big bang is.
Apparently we will be more confused and will be stuck in a paradox. We still not 100% know how the universe was created, and how it will end.
The theories tend to be improving and I hope that we will find a concrete explanation about these phenomena in near future.
- Apoorv Vaidya